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III BSc  CBZ A section



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Endosulphan is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide, it is commonly used in fruit crops, tea, vegetables and grains. It is first developed in 1950 and finally in 1954 Hoechst AG , USDA approved for the use of endosulphan in the United States which contain cyclodiene sub group ,it is an organochlorine insecticide. It is highly toxic environmental pollutant causing long term harmful impacts on humans and wildlife.

Effects of Endosulphan :

  1. Threats to Human Health: it is commonly enter  into the human body by  swallowing through water ,food  ,damaged skin, contaminated  food.
  2. It mostly damages to the lungs, heart, kidneys, adrenal glands, central nervous system, liver muscles and spleen.
  3. Acute Toxicity: endosulphan is readily absorbed by the stomach ,lungs through skin. It damages to red blood cells , thyroid , kidney and the developing foetus , also inhibits immune function.
  4. Endocrine distruption: it effect hormonal mechanism at low concentrations . It can mimic hormones in the human body, increasing the risk of cancer in reproductive organs.

Threats to environment :

It is commonly toxic to wildlife, cats, dogs, honeybees, birds, amphibians ,fish and aquatic insects ,molluscs, crocodile, turtles, soil , micro-organisms and arthropoda.

It is a volatile and persistent, it also contaminate the food chain around the world.

Endosulphan does not easily dissolve in water, it persists in the soil particles and easily transfers these pesticides into the soil and surface run off water.

Tragedy occurred in Kasaragod district of Kerala:

It was in 2001 Kasragodu was the worst affected by endosulfan and   spread the numerous hereditary diseases and various types of cancers. There are 5500 members affected in Kerala.

Finally, the endoslphan will be banned in the year 2011 by the Supreme Court of India, but still unfortunately in some regions farmers still using the endosulphan.

It’s our duty to create awareness among the farmers,  and  all citizens of  India  to ban the most of the harmful pesticides that poisons the our mother earth.


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